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Written By Winston Bensford on Saturday, February 13, 2016 | 12:16 AM

Examination Name : ' Direct Recruitment '                                        Advertisement No. : ' 04 - EXAM / 2016 ' 
Advertisement Start Date : 
' 10/02/2016 ' , 

Date for calculating cut of age :-01/07/2016

UPSSSC Recruitment 2016 – Apply Online for 5306 Junior Assistant Posts: Uttar Pradesh Subordinate Services Selection Commission (UPSSSC), Lucknow has announced notification for the recruitment of 5306 junior assistant vacancies. 
Eligible candidates can apply online from 10-02-2016 to 28-02-2016. 
Other details like age limit, educational qualification, selection process, application fee & how to apply are given below…

UPSSSC Vacancy Details:
Total No. of Posts: 5306
Name of the Post: Junior Assistant
I. Name of the Department: Public Welfare department, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow.
Age Limit: Candidate age should not be below 18 year and not more than 40 years age as on 01-07-2016 (Born between 02-07-1976 to 01-07-1998). Age relaxation is applicable as per rules.

Educational Qualification: Candidates must have passed Intermediate Examination from the Board of High School and Intermediate Uttar Pradesh or any qualification recognized by the Governor as equivalent & ‘CCC’ certificate in Computer.

Selection Process: Selection will be based on Written Exam.
Application Fee: Candidates should have to pay Rs. 185/- + Rs. 25/- Online Processing Fee for UR (General) & OBC candidates, Rs. 100/- + Rs. 25/- Online Processing Fee for SC & ST candidates through E-Challan to deposit the fee in any of the branches of State Bank of India. PH candidates have to Rs. 25/- Processing Fee only.

How to Apply: Eligible candidates can apply online through the website from 10-02-2016 to 28-02-2016.

Instructions for Applying Online:
1. Candidates must have scanned copies of photograph & signature.
2. Log on to the website
3. Click on All Notifications/ Advertisements.
4. Read all the instructions carefully before applying online.
5. Click on “Apply” beside the “Direct Recruitment”.
6. Click on “Candidate Registration” and Fill all the mandatory details.
7. Submit error free application form.
8. An Registration Slip with unique registration number will be displayed, take print out for future reference.
9. Click on “Generate E-Challan/I-Collect” and make the fee payment.
10. Click on “Submit Application Form” then Part-II application form will be generated.
11. Fill all the mandatory details and upload scanned photograph, signature.
12. Click on Submit button then a Declaration form will be opened.
13. Fill all the particulars carefully in the “Declaration” form.
14. After filling details, preview the application form & click on the “Submit” button.
15. Take print out of application form & other forms for future use.

Important Dates:
Starting Date for Online Registration: 10-02-2016.
Dates for Receipt of Online Fee: From 10-02-2016 to 02-03-2016.
Last Date for Online Registration: 28-02-2016.
Last Date to Submit Online Application: 28-02-2016.
For more details like age limit, educational qualification, selection process, how to apply & other information click on the link given below…

UPSSSC More Information
Recruitment AdvtGet Details
Online ApplicationClick Here
Online Instructions in EnglishGet Details
Online Instructions in HindiGet Details


Written By Winston Bensford on Tuesday, June 30, 2015 | 7:42 PM

stportal.inInstitute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS) has released notification for conducting the Online examination for the next Common Recruitment Process for selection of personnel for Probationary Officer/ Management Trainee (CWE PO/MT-V) vacancies in the Participating Organisations. Eligible candidates may apply online from 10-07-2015 to 01-08-2015. Other details like age limit, educational qualification, selection process, how to apply are given below…

IBPS CWE PO/MT-V 2015 Eligibility Details:
Age Limit: Candidates age should be between 20-30 years as on 01-07-2015 i.e. candidate must have been born not earlier than 02-07-1985 and not later than 01-07-1995 (both dates inclusive). Age relaxation is applicable for SC/ ST/ OBC/ PH/ Ex-servicemen & Others as per rules.

Educational Qualification: Candidate should possess Degree (Graduation) in any discipline from a University recognized by the Govt. of India or any equivalent qualification recognized as such by the Central Government.
Selection Process: Candidates will be selected based on Preliminary examination, Main examination & Common Interview.

Application Fee: Candidates have to pay application fee/ intimation charges of Rs. 100/- for SC/ ST/ PWD candidates and Rs. 600/- for all others through Online. After submission of online application form, candidates can make payment through payment gateway only Debit Cards (RuPay/ Visa/ MasterCard/ Maestro), Credit Cards, Internet Banking, IMPS, Cash Cards/ Mobile Wallets by providing information as asked on the screen from 10-07-2015 to 01-08-2015. After making online payment, take print out of system generated e-receipt for future use.

How to Apply: Eligible candidates may apply online through IBPS official website from 10-07-2015 to 01-08-2015 and no other mode of application will be accepted. After submission of online application form, candidates have to take print out of it for future purpose.

Important Dates:
Starting Date to Apply Online & for Edit/ Modification of Application: 10-07-2015.
Last Date to Apply Online & for Edit/ Modification of Application: 01-08-2015.
Starting Date for Payment of Fee: 10-07-2015.
Last Date for Payment of Fee: 01-08-2015.
Download of Call Letter for Pre-Exam Training: 09-09-2015 to 19-09-2015.
Conduct of Pre-Exam Training: 18-09-2015 to 23-09-2015.
Download of Call Letter for Online Preliminary Examination: 23-09-2015 onwards.
Date of Online Preliminary Examination: 03-10-2015, 04-10-2015, 10-10-2015, 11-10-2015.
Result of Online Preliminary Examination: October 2015.
Download of Call letter for Online Main Examination: October 2015.
Date of Online Main Examination: 31-10-2015.
Date of Declaration of Main Exam Result: November 2015.
Download of Call letters for Interview: December 2015.
Conduct of Interview: January 2016.
Provisional Allotment: April 2016.

                                                         Apply Online Now

IBPS PO/ MT CWE-V 2015 Notification   Get Details

IBPS RRB CWE-IV Recruitment 2015 Apply Online for (Office Asst, Officer Scale I, II, III)

Written By Winston Bensford on Wednesday, June 17, 2015 | 11:21 PM
Institute of Banking Personnel Selection (IBPS) has released notification for conducting Online Common Written Examination (RRBs CWE-IV) for the recruitment of Group “A”- Officer (Scale-I, II & III) & Group “B”- Office Assistant (Multipurpose) vacancies in 56 Regional Rural Banks (RRBs). Eligible candidates may apply online from 08-07-2015 to 28-07-2015. Other details like age limit, educational qualification, selection process, how to apply are given below…

Age Limit: Candidates age limit will be considered as on 01-07-2015. Age relaxation is applicable as per rules.

Post NameAge Limit
Office AssistantBetween 18-28 years
Officer Scale IBetween 18-30 years
Officer Scale IIBetween 18-32 years
Officer Scale IIIBetween 18-40 years

Educational Qualification:
For Office Assistant (Multipurpose):
Degree in any discipline from a recognized University or its equivalent and must have proficiency in local language.

For Officer Scale I:
Degree in any discipline from a recognized University or its equivalent and must have proficiency in local language.

For Officer Scale II (General Banking Officer):
Degree in any discipline from a recognized University or its equivalent with at least 50% marks in aggregate with 2 years experience as an officer in a Bank or Financial Institution.

For Officer Scale II (Specialist Officer):
Information Technology Officer: Degree from a recognized University in Electronics/ Communication/ Computer Science/ Information Technology or its equivalent with a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate.

Chartered Accountant: Certified Associate (CA) from Institute of Chartered Accountants of India.

Law Officer: Degree from a recognized University in Law or its equivalent with a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate with two years experience as an advocate or should have worked as Law Officer in Banks or Financial Institutions.

Treasury Manager: Certified Associate ship (CA) from Institute of Chartered Accountants of India or MBA in Finance from a recognized university/ institution.

Marketing Officer: MBA in Marketing from a recognized university.

Agricultural Officer: Degree in Agriculture/ Horticulture/ Dairy/ Animal Husbandry/ Forestry/ Veterinary Science/ Agricultural Engineering/ Pisciculture from a recognized university or its equivalent with a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate.

For Officer Scale III:
Degree in any discipline from a recognized University or its equivalent with a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate with minimum 5 years experience as an Officer in a Bank or Financial Institutions.

Selection Process: Candidates will be selected based on Common Online Examination & Common Interview.

Application Fee: Candidates have to pay application fee/ intimation charges of Rs. 100/- for SC/ ST/ PWD/ EXSM category and Rs. 600/- for all others through Online. After submission of online application form, candidates can make payment through payment gateway only Debit Cards (RuPay/ Visa/ MasterCard/ Maestro), Credit Cards, Internet Banking, IMPS, Cash Cards/ Mobile Wallets by providing information as asked on the screen from 08-07-2015 to 28-07-2015. After online payment, take print out of system generated e-receipt for future use.

How to Apply: Eligible candidates may apply online through IBPS official website from 08-07-2015 to 28-07-2015 and no other mode of application will be accepted. After submission of online application form, candidates have to take print out of it for future purpose.

Instructions to Apply Online:
1. Before applying online candidates should have valid email ID & scanned copies of photograph, signature.
2. Log on through the website
3. Select the link “Click here to Apply Online for CWE-RRBs-Officers (Scale-I, II and III) September 2015″ or “Click here to Apply Online for CWE-RRBs-Office Assistants (Multipurpose) September 2015″ to open Online Application.
4. Fill all the mandatory details & upload scanned copies of photograph & signature.
5. Make the payment through online by using Debit Cards (RuPay/ Visa/ MasterCard/ Maestro), Credit Cards, Internet Banking, IMPS, Cash Cards/ Mobile Wallets by providing information. On successful completion of the transaction, an e-receipt will be generated and take the print out of e-receipt.
6. Submit online application with out mistakes.
7. After submission of online application registration number & password will be generated. Candidates should note their registration number & password for future reference.
8. Now take print out of system generated online Application Form for future use by using registration number, password/ date of birth.

Important Dates:
Starting Date to Apply Online & for Payment of Fee: 08-07-2015.
Last Date to Apply Online & for Payment of Fee: 28-07-2015.
Download of call letters for Pre-Exam Training for Officer Scale-I: After 17-08-2015.
Date of Pre-Exam Training for Officer Scale-I: 24-08-2015 to 29-08-2015.
Download of call letters for Pre-Exam Training for Office Assistant: After 24-08-2015.
Date of Pre-Exam Training for Office Assistant: 31-08-2015 to 05-09-2015.
Download of Call Letters for Online Examination: After 19-08-2015.
Online Examination: September 2015.
Declaration of Result: October 2015.
Conduct of Interview: November/ December 2015.
Provisional Allotment: January 2016.
For more details like CWE score, examination centres and other information click on the below links…

Online Exam Notification-                 Get Details

    Apply Online OA                                PO(Scale-1)                                       Officer(Scale-2 or 3rd)

Participating RRBs:
Sl NoName of the RRBLocal Language Proficiency
1Allahabad UP Gramin BankHindi, Urdu, Sanskrit
2Andhra Pradesh Grameena Vikas BankTelugu
3Andhra Pragathi Grameena BankTelugu
4Arunachal Pradesh Rural BankEnglish
5Assam Gramin Vikash BankAssamese, Bengali, Bodo
6Bangiya Gramin Vikash BankBengali
7Baroda Gujarat Gramin BankGujarati
8Baroda Rajasthan Kshetriya Gramin BankHindi
9Baroda UP Gramin BankHindi, Urdu, Sanskrit
10Bihar Gramin BankHindi
11Central Madhya Pradesh Gramin BankHindi
12Chaitanya Godavari Grameena BankTelugu
13Chhattisgarh Rajya Gramin BankHindi
14Dena Gujarat Gramin BankGujarati
15Ellaquai Dehati BankDogri, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Urdu,
Gojri,Pahari, Ladakhi, Balti (Palli), Dardi, Hindi
16Gramin Bank of AryavartHindi
17Himachal Pradesh Gramin BankHindi
18J & K Grameen BankDogri, Kashmiri, Pahari, Gojri,
Punjabi, Ladakhi, Balti (Palli), Dardi
19Jharkhand Gramin BankHindi
20Karnataka Vikas Grameen BankKannada
21Kashi Gomti Samyut Gramin BankHindi
22Kaveri Grameena BankKannada
23Kerala Gramin BankMalayalam
24Langpi Dehangi Rural BankAssamese, Bengali, Bodo
25Madhya Bihar Gramin BankHindi
26Madhyanchal Gramin BankHindi
27Maharashtra Gramin BankMarathi
28Malwa Gramin BankPunjabi
29Manipur Rural BankManipuri
30Meghalaya Rural BankKhasi, Garo
31Mizoram Rural BankMizo
32Nagaland Rural BankEnglish
33Narmada Jhabua Gramin BankHindi
34Odisha Gramya BankOdia
35Pallavan Grama BankTamil
36Pandyan Grama BankTamil
37PaschimBanga Gramin BankBengali
38Pragathi Krishna Gramin BankKannada
39Prathma BankHindi
40PuduvaiBharthiarGrama BankTamil, Malayalam, Telugu
41Punjab Gramin BankPunjabi
42Purvanchal BankHindi
43Rajasthan Marudhara Gramin BankHindi
44Saptagiri Grameena BankTelugu
45Sarva Haryana Gramin BankHindi
46Sarva UP Gramin BankHindi
47Saurashtra Gramin BankGujarati
48Sutlej Gramin BankPunjabi
49Telangana Grameena BankTelugu, Urdu
50Tripura Gramin BankBengali, Kokborak
51UtkalGrameen BankOdia
52Uttarbanga Kshetriya Gramin BankBengali, Nepali
53Uttar Bihar Gramin BankHindi
54Uttarakhand Gramin BankHindi, Sanskrit
55Vananchal Gramin BankHindi
56VidharbhaKonkan Gramin BankMarathi

Wages and Special allowance given to bank employees in 2015 as Expected

Written By Winston Bensford on Tuesday, May 26, 2015 | 8:09 PM

Indian Banks Association on Monday signing a wage agreement with employee unions and officer associations.

The revision, applicable retrospectively with effect from November 1, 2012, will benefit employees and officers in 43 banks including PSU banks, old private sector banks and a few foreign banks.The 15 per cent hike would put an extra burden of Rs 4,725 crore on the banks."The 15 per cent wage revision would cost banks Rs 4,725 crore as incremental salary and allowances in a year. If superannuation cost is included, then the total burden would be around Rs 8,370 crore," IBA chairman T M Bhasin told reporters here on Monday.As a prudent measure, banks have been making provision for wage hike for last few years.For officers, the pay has been revised from existing range of Rs 14,500-Rs 52,000 to Rs 23,700-Rs 85,000.

A special allowance for officers ranging from 7.75 to 11 per cent of basic pay along with applicable dearness allowance has been introduced.The scale of pay of workmen and non-subordinate staff has been revised from Rs 7,200-Rs 19,300 to Rs 11,765-Rs 31,540 while the scale of pay of subordinate staff has been increased from Rs 5,850-Rs 11,350 to Rs 9,560-Rs 18,545.As per the new pact, a special allowance for workmen at 7.75 per cent of basic pay along with applicable dearness allowance has also been introduced.

Mr Bhasin said arrears to workmen will be given immediately and within 4-6 months for officers.The bank employees will now soon get holidays on second and fourth Saturdays."RBI has given in-principle approval for it (holidays) and we have written to the government. We hope to get permission soon. We expect it should take 3-4 weeks' time to implement it," Mr Bhasin added.The wage settlement has also introduced a medical insurance scheme for employees of member banks and their family members."Earlier, all banks were having reimbursement of hospitalisation and medical expenses on individual bank basis. Now, we have taken consolidated policy from four public sector non-life companies which gives a floater cover of Rs 3 lakh and Rs 4 lakh for family.""There will be cashless facility available as we are giving them 100 per cent reimbursement for self and dependents," Mr Bhasin added.In the wage revision exercise, 11 employee unions and officers associations participated.

After 10 BPS Settlement 15 Percentage Bank Salary revision as expected in June 2015
Unions in banking sectors and Indian Bank's Association (IBA) agreed on increasing pay slip salary component by 15 Percent. 
And Recently RBI has agreed to implement the revision and allow the second and fourth saturday off,   As wage revision (10th Bipartite settled at 15 % hike. So, following would be the New pay structure of newly joined Probationary Officer (PO) Salary and the officer who are in first year of Probation period. 

We have considered on the basis of formula which are used in wage settlement process.

The Salary Structure Scale-1, to Scale-VI

SBI PO Descriptive Exam e-book free Download

Written By Winston Bensford on Sunday, May 17, 2015 | 11:47 AM

Example -1
1. I have always been fascinated by carnival rides. It amazes me that average, ordinary people eagerly trade
in the serenity of the ground for the chance to be tossed through the air like vegetables in a food processor. It amazes
me that at some time in history someone thought that people would enjoy this, and that person invented what must have been
the first of these terrifying machines. For me, it is precisely the thrill and excitement of having survived the ride that
keeps me coming back for more.
My first experience with a carnival ride was a Ferris wheel at a local fair. Looking at that looming
monstrosity spinning the life out of its sardine-caged occupants, I was dumbstruck. It was huge, smoky, noisy and a little
intimidating. Ever since that initial impression became fossilized in my imagination many years ago, these rides have
reminded me of mythical beasts, amazing dinosaurs carrying off their screaming passengers like sacrificial virgins. Even
the droning sound of their engines brings to mind the great roar of a fire-breathing dragon with smoke spewing from its
exhaust-pipe nostrils.
The first ride on one of these fantastic beasts gave me an instant rush of adrenaline. As the death-
defying ride started, a lump in my throat pulsed like a dislodged heart ready to walk the plank. As the ride gained speed,
the resistance to gravity built up against my body until I was unable to move. An almost imperceptible pause as the wheel
reached the top of its climb allowed my body to relax in a brief state of normalcy. Then there was an assault of stomach-
turning weightlessness as the machine continued its rotation and I descended back toward the earth. A cymbal-like crash
vibrated through the air as the wheel reached bottom, and much to my surprise I began to rise again.
Each new rotation gave me more confidence in the churning machine. Every ascent left me elated that I had
survived the previous death-defying fall. When another nerve-wracking climb failed to follow the last exhilarating descent
and the ride was over, I knew I was hooked. Physically and emotionally drained, I followed my fellow passengers down the
clanging metal steps to reach the safety of my former footing. I had been spared, but only to have the opportunity to ride
My fascination with these fantastic flights is deeply engrained in my soul. A trip on the wonderful Ferris wheel
never fails to thrill me. Although I am becoming older and have less time, or less inclination, to play, the child-like
thrill I have on a Ferris wheel continues with each and every ride.
2. One of my favorite things to do before starting my day is to take a jog in the local park. My mind will
clear, and I will be able to face whatever may happen that day. It makes me appreciate the simple things in life a lot
more. Jogging in the park during early hours opens up opportunities to see different scenes and portraits and open my mind
to a new perspective.
Entering the park, a slight breeze rustles the leaves making them fall to the solid ground one by one. The sun
begins to rise, waking the tired sleepers. Flowers are vast, and they conceal the freshly cut green grass. There are sun-
colored daisies, vivid purple lilies, carrot tinted hydrangeas, and cotton candy pink hyacinths. The pathway is nothing
more than dirt littered with random rocks. The ground, moist from the night before, causes my footing to slip, keeping me
on my toes. There is a white picket fence that runs along the trail, reminding me of the one running along Marilla and
Matthew’s property in the movie,Anne of Green Gables. The park is barren except for an elderly couple feeding the ducks
and a couple of fellow joggers breathing in the fresh morning air.
Walking by the minute green and brown tinted pond, the milky white, soft feathered ducks can be heard a
block away as they quack and battle for the food being thrown for them. The elderly couple, dressed in their black silk
slacks and crème colored matching sweaters, watch in amusement as they are the ones causing all the excitement. Behind the
oddly shaped rocks and algae in the pond, orange, red, and yellow fish dart back and forth. They only come out of hiding
when miniscule hints of bread begin to fall. If you look closely enough, you can see a turtle, colored forest green,
blending in with the algae.
Beyond the pond lies the lonely playground. The brick red jungle gym sits there in its solitude, longing
for some eager company. In between parts of the jungle gym is the bridge to partake in children’s fantasies from battling
trolls, or patrolling the fort. An ugly putrid brown covers it, and it is obvious that the screws are becoming unhinged,
and it is only so long before it comes crashing down. The swings rock gently, and the sound of the metal rubbing together
can be heard. Orange and bright in color, the swirl shaped slide echoes the belly laughs and shrilly screams of children
who have dared to go down the slide. The merry-go-round, an orange red color with splashes of blue across the edges, is
still like a parked car. No one is there to move it or spin it; There are no bursts of laughter or tears for when someone
falls off and scrapes their knee.
The park offers a variety of scenery, which makes the jog more worthwhile. As the end of the jog nears, my
mind is refreshed and my body is energized for the day. Unforeseen thoughts pop into my head just as new answers for old
problems unfold. One beautiful morning run can change your day and make all the difference.
Example -1
1. In Pursuit of Thinness
Throughout history and through a cross-section of cultures, women have transformed their appearance to
conform to a beauty ideal. Ancient Chinese aristocrats bound their feet as a show of femininity; American and European
women in the 1800s cinched in their waists so tightly, some suffered internal damage; in some African cultures women
continue to wear plates in their lower lips, continually stretching the skin to receive plates of larger size.
The North American ideal of beauty has continually focussed on women’s bodies: the tiny waist of the Victorian
period, the boyish figure in vogue during the flapper era, measures of beauty between the 1930s and 1950s. Current
standards emphasize a toned, slender look, one that exudes fitness, youth, and health. According to psychologist Eva
Szekely, “Having to be attractive at this time . . . means unequivocally having to be thin. In North America today,
thinness is a precondition for being perceived by others and oneself as healthy”. However, this relentless pursuit of
thinness is not just an example of women trying to look their best, it is also a struggle for control, acceptance and
In attempting to mould their appearance to meet the current ideal, numerous women are literally starving
themselves to death. The incidence of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia, has “doubled during the last
two decades”. This increase is no longer limited to women in their teens and twenties, but is increasingly diagnosed in
patients in their thirties and forties. “No doubt, the current sociocultural emphasis on thinness and physical fitness as
a symbol of beauty and success has contributed to this age distribution”.
One of the negative psychological side effects associated with eating disorders is the patient’s
distortion of their own body image,body image being defined as “the picture a person has in his mind of his own body, that
is, the way his body appears to him”. For the anorexic this distortion is exaggerated, the patient feels fat even while
emaciated, however, many women who are caught up in the relentless pursuit of thinness also experience some degree of
disturbed body image. The experiences and practices of women who “simply diet” are not radically different from those who
are diagnosed with eating disorders. For some women, achieving the “perfect” body form becomes the most important goal in
Example -2
2. General Elections In India
In a democratic country, government must take a verdict of the people from time to time. When it
contemplates a change in policy, it becomes necessary to know what people think about it. Also it may be necessary to
consult the people as a routine measure, after intervals, fixed by the statue. For this purpose elections are held all
over the country and people are asked to cast their votes for or against certain measures.
The existing popular assemblies are dissolved, and they are re-constituted on the basis of a general
election. Usually people vote on party lines. Where there is only one party, as it was in the former Soviet Union and in
the present-day communist China, votes are cast for or against the party candidate. Policies are decided or the basis of
such voting.
In our country, a general election is held normally after five years. But if a Prime Minister contemplates a new
line of policy, he or she may seek mandate from the people even before the expiry of five years, as Mrs. Indira Gandhi did
in 1971.
For the purpose of elections, the country is divided into a large number of constituencies. These
constituencies are asked to elect their representatives. Each party puts its own candidates for election. When the
candidates have submitted their nomination papers by the prescribed date, after the scrutiny of nomination papers are
finished, dates for election are announced and the electoral machinery begins to function.
The candidates or their agents go from house to house, canvass¬ing votes. The party bosses are active and hold
public meetings to explain to the people what they stand for. Each party uses every argument and influence to convince the
electorate that it alone is right and can deliver the goods.
At one time voters were bribed, persuaded or threatened. But now this is not much in evidence. For
malpractices during election are strictly forbidden and the whole election may be counter-manded or annulled (cancelled)
if such a corrupt charge is proved. For there is the three man election commission to oversee the entire election process.
A prominent and eye-catching feature of election propaganda is by flaunting posters on houses and banners across
the streets as also hoardings with flags and slogans and symbols of the candidates and wall graphics.
The Election Day is usually a general holiday. From morning, voters go their way to the polling-booths
where long queue are formed to ensure orderly voting. Voters move up to the ballot box after running through proper
formalities and cast their votes according to their preference.
To obviate false voting, the forefinger of the voter is marked with an indelible ink spot and his signature is
taken, after check-up by the rival polling agents. The system to be followed in the next General Election is to supply
each voter with a photo identity card which he must have to produce to the polling officer on compulsion.
Some take their voting as a serious duty; others are in a more light-hearted mood. The Election Conducting
Officers as well as candidates go from one both to another as if to remind their supporters of their existence, for
canvassing on that day is strictly forbidden. Serious complaints about malpractices are sent up to the Election Tribunal.
After the voting is over, the ballot boxes are sealed and taken to the proper place for counting. This is the most
important and exciting of all days. The issue is to be decided. The candidates are on the tenterhook of suspense.
The ministry, i.e. the party in power is equally so for it may be voted out of power. As the secret of
each ballot box is unlocked by the Returning officer, the successful candidate and his party are overjoyed; the
unsuccessful go out crest¬fallen. The total results show which party has won. If the ruling party is defeated, it resigns
and allows the winning party or coalition to assume the reins of office. The verdict of the people is mandatory.
Do elections as they are held today in our country truly reflect the will of the people? Doubts are- often
expressed in this regard. Parties are so many that it is difficult to judge their credentials. They often represent local,
regional, communal or sectarian interest and therefore they divert attention from important national issue. Often a party,
which is in a minority on a total count of voter, may win in a large number of constituencies, and thus secure an
effective majority for functioning as a government. Another irritant to Indian Election system is the presence of a large
number of unprincipled independent candidates in the election process. With all its limita-tions, election on the basis of
adult franchise seems to be the most practical way of ensuring a truly democratic government.
1. Terrorism in India
Terrorism means the policy of striking terror in the minds of the people by violent methods to achieve
some ends. It is a law of the jungle to use muscle power and force to get things done. It is a barbarian act. Of late,
terrorism has become the order of the day.
People who are disgruntled and who are unable to get their desires fulfilled by normal and accepted methods in
society are resorting to terrorism. Some other causes for which terrorism is resorted to may be genuine like a protest
from people to come out of bondage or fight for freedom. Even such causes do not support terrorism, when there are other
channels and methods to solve the problem.
Terrorism has now become an international phenomenon. There are terrorists in developed and advanced
countries as well as developing countries like India. We must find out the reasons for emergence of terrorism. There has
been exploitation of the weak and the poor for centuries by the rich and the powerful. All representations and appeals of
non-violent nature failed to yield any response. Hence the frustrated and the oppressed resort to violence as there is no
other alternative. Such protests are also called terrorist activities. There is another type, that is, where one uses
force on the weak to gain his ends; sit may be to serve the cause of a religion, a language or to establish a new pattern
of government.
The communist movements which resort to force, and the armed protests which Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
led, in the name of the Indian National Army (I.N.A) cannot be termed as terrorist activities. Protests like Khalistan
Movement carried on earlier in Punjab, the armed protest marches of Assam and the L.T.T.E. Movement of Sri Lanka are not
justifiable movements. They could always use other forums of a non-violent nature if they have any grievances to be
redressed. The hijacking of the Indian Airlines Plane in December 1999 is also another ugly face of terrorism. The worst
type of terrorism was that of Idi Amin of Uganda who let loose terrorism in his country to serve his personal ends.
Whether terrorism is justified or not, it has of late become the normal method for achieving one’s ends.
Terrorism is not confined to any area or activity. It is finding its place in the elections conducted in
our country to elect members to legislatures and parliament. Many a times the candidates are found taking the help of
terrorists to win their elections, as violence has its own place in an election campaign. As long as violence pays
dividends much more easily and is allowed to go unchecked, the animal in man favors its use instead of peaceful methods.
Governments all over the world are doing their best to put an end to terrorism. There are a few who encourage and
support terrorism in other countries to meet their own political ends. The U.N.O. also is unable to completely eliminate
this evil, even though it is able to contain it. But use of violence to check violence is not a permanent solution.
The only remedy to this evil appears to be the diagnosis of the root cause for each act of terrorism and
if there is a genuine reason behind it, it is better to concede the demand. If terrorism is based on issues which are
immoral and not acceptable, the sure and powerful weapon against it appears to be non violent “satyagraha” introduced by
Mahatma Gandhi.
2. Death Penalty In India
The Indian penal code provides for capital punishment for criminal conspiracy, waging or attempting to
wage war against the Government of India, abetment of mutiny giving or fabricating false capital evidence in officers
leading to the conviction, abetment of suicide committed by a child or insane or delirious person or a person who is
intoxicated and murdered in decoity.
In India, death penalty is discretionary rather than mandatory in all capital offences except in case of murder by
a life. Section 303 of IPC lays down “whoever, being under sentence of imprisonment for life, commits murder shall be
punished with death.”
For various capital offences the judges no doubt take into account the background of the crime, the age of
the offender and the mental and physical condition of the accused.
Moreover the appellate courts also show some leniency. And at the top of all there is the executive clemency
exercised by the President of India. The fact that only 25 to 40 percent of convicted offenders are hanged every year,
goes to prove that both judicial process and executive clemency are available to a significant percentage of offenders
condemned to death.
Meanwhile the President of India has rejected the mercy petition field on behalf of Dhananjay Chatterjee and he
was sent to gallows.
The recent announcement by the Government that it was not in favour of abolishing the death penalty has again
highlighted the questions raised by many human rights activists. Is it consistent with human dignity?
The question was raised even in 1946 on the eve of independence. Since then we have been discussing the
relevance of capital punishment. Does it really solve problems?
The opposition to abolition of the death penalty stems from the myth that it will lead an increase in the number
of murders. The fact is that in the state of Travancore there were 162 murders between 1946 and 1950 when the death
penalty was not in force, But in the five years from 1950 when it was re-imposed. There were 967 murderers. It has been
argued that it is not possible to fight such crimes by framing law. What we need is to target the root of a crime.
Discontent in a society is one of the reasons for such crimes.
Those who do not support capital punishment often quite ignore incidents like Mumbai terror or attack on
Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister’s convoy in Tirupati. But we should remember that terrorist and suicidal maniacs responsible
for the blasts and other such crimes also do not care about the consequences or punishment. They are already beyond the
pale of humanity and have to be fought using innovative ideas and methods of counter terrorism.
It was 1931 where the death penalty was seriously challenged in the Bihar Assembly. A member of the
Assembly unsuccessfully sought to introduce a bill seeking its abolition. In 1946, on the eve of independence the then
Union Home Minister stated that the Government did not think it was to abolish capital punishment. Ten years later when
the government asked the states for their opinions; most of them expressed support for the death penalty.
In the 35th report produced in 1967 the Law Commission took the view that capital punishment acted as a deterrent
to crime. But the statistics did not prove these so called deterrent have any effect the Supreme Court traditionally has
not questioned the death sentence per se. In the Jagmohan Singh case (1973) it agreed with the Law Commission that capital
punishment should be retained.
But subsequently cases such as those of Eliga Anawana (1974) and Rajender Prasad (1979) saw dissenting
voices being raised in the Apex Court. These led (1980) case by Constitution Bench. The Bench concluded by four to one
vote that the death penalty did -not violate Article 14 or Article 21 of the constitution. But some liberal judges tried
to develop the alternative by holding that the consent could involve Article 21 in the event of the death sentence not
being carried out even after two years and demanded that it be quashed.
Amnesty International, a strong opponent of the death penalty world wide, cites the Boldus report prepared
in the U.S. to argue that capital punishment is socially oppressive. It found, that if the homicide victims were white,
the killers were four times more likely to get the death sentences that if those murdered were black.
It can not be disputed that the outcome of any trial depends to a large extent on the quality of legal advice that
the accused receive. This loads the scales in favour of the rich. The arbitrariness of the sentencing mechanism in India
persuades one to strongly argue against releasing the death penalty but it is the Parliament who has the right to take
capital punishment.
1. As an English major I have learned to appreciate the peaceful, yet exhilarating moment when my mind
engages with an author’s thoughts on a page. As Toni Morrison says in The Dancing Mind , “Reading is to experience one’s
own mind dancing with another’s.” In my early days as a college student, I wanted to know the “true” meaning of a work or
what the author intended, however, I have now realized this would void literature of its most noteworthy complexities.
Individual interpretations bring varied insights to a work and it is also interesting to point out messages the author may
not have realized.
I have always been a thinker, but throughout my coursework, I have greatly sharpened my critical analysis
skills. Instead of focusing on proposed meanings or biographical background, I have learned to continuously ask “why” on
many different levels. I challenge myself to dig into a text as deeply as possible and unpack every detail to develop a
satisfying close read. Also, by reading multiple novels by the same author I have learned to identify different writing
styles and make connections that weave texts together; this helped me develop a deeper understanding of the novels. When I
look at one of my freshman level novels and see clean pages, I realize that I did not actively read the book. I guess you
could say that I have learned to read with a pen, which has drastically taken my writing to a new level because I am able
to connect back with my initial insights marked on the page.
Writing had always been one of my strengths, but it was challenging to take that initial step past the
high school, five-paragraph essay form that constricted my ideas for so long. Moving past this form, however, has greatly
opened my mind. My thoughts are now able to be more complex because I have learned how to sustain a logical argument in an
organized manner. My writing has become increasingly more concise and I no longer have room for added “fluff” or
“padding.” Another improvement is my ability to point out multiple complexities within a text, instead of sticking to
one-sided arguments in my papers. Furthermore, learning how to find peer reviewed journal articles and order books through
interlibrary loan has significantly widened the scope of my research, which has lead to more scholarly papers with
credible references. My writing is so much more interesting than it used to be.
It is difficult to identify gaps in my knowledge as an English major, only because I feel like I have
learned so much. I feel that I have largely expanded my literary analysis and writing skills, but I need to be prepared to
teach high school students their required literature. I think it would be useful to identify commonly taught novels in our
local high schools and study them myself. By studying the required literature and thinking about how to teach it, I will
have a sturdy foundation to work from once I am in the classroom.
1. If I were the Prime Minister of India
India is the largest democratic country and the Prime Minister is the head of it. He represents the country and is
regarded as the first among equals. It is really a matter of pride to be the Prime Minister of such a vast country.
As a Prime Minister I would like to develop India as a strong self reliant nation. For this first of all I would
like to have a check on the increasing population. Unless it is checked, our country can not progress. Malnutrition,
insufficient medical care, high infant mortality rates and problems of aged people are some of its direct consequences.
Hence population control would be the first priority.
Then I would control the price rise. The distribution system of essential commodity would be made more effective.
The hoarders and businessmen would not take advantage of the things because of strict rules. Eradication of poverty and
illiteracy are also very important.
They are curses and I would try my best so that each and every Indian may get rid of them. I would give
priority to achieve the target of 100% literacy which would be employment oriented. Rural school would be provided with
good and sincere teachers.
Higher education would be based on merit. The talented people would be given proper placements by setting up
centres for excellence. This would stop brain-drain, one of the major problems of India.
Necessary steps would be taken to uproot unemployment. It has created depression among our youth. In lack
of employment, the young boys go astray. They are indulged in serious crimes and thus become the unsocial elements.
They would be given proper direction so that they may extend their helping hands in the progress of the
country. My aim would be to spread computer, internet and telephone lines to the remotest village of the country. Special
training sessions would be organised for youth. Loans will be available for the deserving people.
This would encourage self-employment, which is the need of the hour. There would not be any gap between
the rich and the poor. Employment avenues would be available for all.
People would be taught about their duties in respect of their rights as provided by the constitution. Strikes will
be banned. Attention will be given towards immoral elements to punish them seriously. I would give priority to establish a
society free from fear and insecurity by encouraging universal brotherhood. Restoration of peace would be the ultimate
goal of my tenure. I would leave not a stone unturned to bring peace in the country. The dignity of the individuals and
the finer qualities of the citizens would be elevated.
Strict laws would be framed for smugglers, hoarders and blackmarketeers. Law and order will be maintained at all
cost. In a nutshell, as a Prime Minister I would like to build my country as it was dreamt by Rabindra Nath Tagore.

Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high; 
Where knowledge is free; 
Where the world has not been broken up 
Into fragments by narrow domestic walls 
Into that heaven of freedom 
My father let my country awake.

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