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General Science - Chemistry (Important glossary to remember):

Written By STPORTAL on Sunday, March 18, 2012 | 2:48 PM

General Science - Chemistry (Important glossary to remember):
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A colloid in which solid particles or liquid droplets are suspended in a gas. Smoke is an example of a solid aerosol; fog is an example of a liquid aerosol.
A very hard, brittle, heat-resistant substance that is used to grind the edges or rough surfaces of an object. boron carbide, diamond, and corundum are abrasives.
A substance added to food or beverages to lower pH and to impart a tart, acid taste. Phosphoric acid is an acidulant added to cola drinks.
Activated charcoal
A porous form of carbon that acts as a powerful adsorbent , used to decolorize liquids, recover solvents, and remove toxins from water and air.
A class of bitter-tasting, basic organic compounds with nitrogen-containing rings. Alkaloids often have powerful effects on living things. Examples are cocaine, nicotine, strychnine, caffeine, and morphine
Some elements occur in several distinct forms called allotropes. Allotropes have different chemical and physical properties. For example, graphite and diamond are allotropes of carbon.
A chemical compound that reacts with chlorine-based bleaches to stop the bleaching. Thiosulfate compounds are antichlors.
Antioxidants are compounds that slow oxidation processes that degrade foods, fuels, rubber, plastic, and other materials. Antioxidants like butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are added to food to prevent fats from becoming rancid and to minimize decomposition of vitamins and essential fatty acids; they work by scavenging destructive free radicals from the food.
Free radical
A free radical is a molecule with an odd number of electrons. Free radicals do not have a completed octet and often undergo vigorous redox reactions. Free radicals produced within cells can react with membranes, enzymes, and genetic material, damaging or even killing the cell. Free radicals have been implicated in a number of degenerative conditions, from natural aging to Alzheimers disease
Avogadro number
It is formally defined to be the number of carbon-12 atoms in 12 grams (0.012 kg) of unbound carbon-12 in its rest-energy electronic state. The number of particles in one mole, equal to 6.02214199 × 1023 mol-1 (± 0.00000047).
A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture composed of tiny particles suspended in another material. The particles are larger than molecules but less than 1 µm in diameter. Particles this small do not settle out and pass right through filter paper. Milk is an example of a colloid. The particles can be solid, tiny droplets of liquid, or tiny bubbles of gas; the suspending medium can be a solid, liquid, or gas (although gas-gas colloids are not possible).
Carotene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon pigment found in many plants It is responsible for the orange colour of the carrot. Carotene is the basic building block of vitamin A.
A substance found in tea, coffee, and cola that acts as a stimulant. It is extremely soluble in supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and somewhat soluble in water; aqueous solutions of caffeine quickly break down.
A solution that can maintain its pH value with little change when acids or bases are added to it. Buffer solutions are usually prepared as mixtures of a weak acid with its own salt or mixtures of salts of weak acids. For example, a 50:50 mixture of 1 M acetic acid and 1 M sodium acetate buffers pH around 4.7.
A crystalline form of carbon, made of a network of covalent, tetrahedrally bound carbon atoms.
Deliquescent compounds absorb so much moisture from the air that they dissolve. Examples are calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide
Dry cell or Leclanché cell
A electrolytic cell that uses a moist paste rather than a liquid as an electrolyte. Flashlight batteries are dry cells with a zinc cup for an anode, a carbon rod for a cathode, and a paste made of powdered carbon, NH4Cl, ZnCl2, and MnO2 for an electrolyte.
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