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General Studies On Indian History About National Activities Part - 3

Written By STPORTAL on Sunday, March 18, 2012 | 2:54 PM

Study Material : General Studies On Indian History About National Activities

  Part - 3 
Dandi March (1930):
• Also called the Salt Satyagraha.
• Along with 78 followers, Gandhiji started his march from Sabarmati Ashram on March 12, 1930 for the small village Dandhi to break the salt law.
• He reached the seashore on Apr.6, 1930.
• He picked a handful of salt and inaugurated the Civil Disobedience Movement.

First Round Table conference (1930):
• It was the first conference arranged between the British and Indians as equals. It was held on Nov.12, 1930 in London to discuss Simon commission.
• Boycotted by INC, Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, Liberals and some others were there.


Gandhi Irwin Pact (1931):
• Moderate Statesman, Sapru, Jaikar and Srinivas Shastri initiated efforts to break the ice between Gandhiji and the government.
• The two (government represented by Irwin and INC by Gandhiji) signed a pact on March 5, 1931.
• In this the INC called off the civil disobedience movement and agreed to join the second round table conference.
• The government on its part released the political prisoners and conceded the right to make salt for consumption for villages along the coast.


Second Round Table Conference (1931):
• Gandhiji represented the INC and went to London to meet British P.M. Ramsay Macdonald.
• However, the session was soon deadlocked on the minorities issue and this time separate electorates was demanded not only by Muslims but also by Depressed Classes, Indian Christians and Anglo – Indians.

The Communal Award (Aug 16,1932):
• Announced by Ramsay McDonald. It showed divide and rule policy of the British.
• Envisaged representation of Muslims, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, women and even Backward classes.
• Gandhiji, who was in Yeravada jail at that time, started a fast unto death against it.

Poona Pact (September 25, 1932):
• After the announcement of communal award and subsequent fast of Gandhiji, mass meeting took place almost everywhere.
• Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, B.R.Ambedkar and M.C.Rajah became active.
• Eventually Poona pact was reached and Gandhiji broke his fact on the sixth day (Sept 25, 1932).
• In this, the idea of separate electorate for the depressed classes was abandoned, but seats reserved to them in the provincial legislature were increased.


Third Round Table Conference (1932):
• Proved fruitless as most of the national leaders were in prison. The discussions led to the passing of the Government of India Act, 1935.
Demand For Pakistan:
• In 1930, Iqbal suggested that the Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Sindh and Kashmir be made the Muslim State within the federation.
• Chaudhary Rehmat Ali gave the term Pakistan in 1923.
• Mohd. Ali Jinnah of Bombay gave it practicality.
• Muslim League first passed the proposal of separate Pakistan in its Lahore session in 1940.

The Cripps Mission – 1942:
• In Dec. 1941, Japan entered the World War – II and advanced towards Indian borders. By March 7, 1942, Rangoon fell and Japan occupied the entire S E Asia.
• The British govt. with a view to getting co-operation from Indians sent Sir Stafford Cripps, leader of the House of Commons to settle terms with the Indian leaders.
• He offered a draft which proposed dominion status to be granted after the war.
• Rejected by the Congress as it didn’t want to rely upon future promises.
• Gandhiji termed it as a post dated cheque in a crashing bank.

  Part - 4 
The Revolt of 1942 & The Quit India Movement:
• Called the Vardha Proposal and Leaderless Revolt.
• The resolution was passed on Aug.8, 1942, at Bombay. Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’.
• On Aug 9, the Congress was banned and its important leaders were arrested.
• The arrests provoked indignation among the masses and, there being no program of action, the movement became spontaneous and violent. Violence spread throughout the country.
• The movement was however crushed.

 The Indian National Army:
Founded by Rasbehari Bose with Captain Mohan Singh.
• S.C.Bose secretly escaped from India in Jain 1941, and reached Berlin. In July 1943, he joined the INA at Singapore. There, Rasbehari Bose handed over the leadership to him.
• The soldiers were mostly raised from Indian soldiers of the British army who had been taken prisoners by the Japanese after they conquered S.E.Asia.
• Two INA head quarters were Rangoon and Singapore (formed in Singapore).
• INA had three fighting brigades named after Gandhiji, Azad and Nehru. Rani Jhansi Brigade was an exclusive women force.

The Cabinet Mission Plan (1946):
• The struggle for freedom entered a decisive phase in the year 1945-46. The new Labour Party PM.Lord Attlee, made a declaration on March 15, 1946, that British Cabinet Mission (comprising of Lord Pethick Lawrence as Chairman, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V.Alexander) will visit India.
• The mission held talks with the INC and ML to bring about acceptance of their proposals.
• On May 16, 1946, the mission put towards its proposals. It rejected the demand for separate Pakistan and instead a federal union consisting of British India and the Princely States was suggested.
• Both Congress and Muslims League accepted it.

 Formation of Interim Government (Sept 2, 1946):
• Based on Cabinet Mission Plan, an interim government consisting of Congress nominees was formed on Sept.2, 1946. J.L.Nehru was its Vice-President and the Governor-General remained as its President.
 Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution (Aug 16, 1946):
• Jinnah was alarmed at the results of the elections because the Muslim League was in danger of being totally eclipsed in the constituent assembly.
• Therefore, Muslim League withdrew its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan on July 29, 1946.
• It passed a ‘Direct action’ resolution, which condemned both the British Government and the Congress (Aug 16, 1946). It resulted in heavy communal riots.
• Jinnah celebrated Pakistan Day on Mar 27, 1947.

Formation of Constituent Assembly (Dec 9, 1946):
• The Constituent assembly met on Dec 9, 1946 and Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected as its president.
Mountbatten Plan (June 3, 1947):
• On June 3, 1947, Lord Mountbatten put forward his plan which outlined the steps for the solution of India’s political problem. The outlines of the Plan were:
• India to be divided into India and Pakistan.
• Bengal and Punjab will be partitioned and a referendum in NEFP and Sylhet district of Assam would be held.
• There would be a separate constitutional assembly for Pakistan to frame its constitution.
• The Princely states would enjoy the liberty to join either India or Pakistan or even remain independent.
• Aug.15, 1947 was the date fixed for handing over power to India and Pakistan.
• The British govt. passed the Indian Independence Act of 1947 in July 1947, which contained the major provisions put forward by the Mountbatten plan.

Partition and Independence (Aug 1947):
• All political parties accepted the Mountbatten plan.
• At the time of independence, there were 562 small and big Princely States in India.
• Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, the first home minister, used iron hand in this regard. By August 15, 1947, all the States, with a few exceptions like Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagarh had signed the Instrument of Accession. Goa was with the Portuguese and Pondicherry with the French.

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