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Geography - World & Indian (Indian Agriculture):

Written By STPORTAL on Sunday, March 18, 2012 | 2:59 PM

Geography - World & Indian (Indian Agriculture):


Indian agriculture depends on the monsoon for its water requirement. Even if the monsoon is normal all the places need not get sufficient rainfall, some place may get high rainfall, or some places get very low rainfall as in Rajathan, Punjab, Haryana etc. The early or delayed withdrawal of monsoon affects the cropping pattern. In the dry period after monsoon, crops cannot be raised without irrigation. So irrigation becomes indispensable in India as many people directly or indirectly still depends on agriculture for their subsistence. The sources of irrigation can be divided into four categories viz. Canals, Wells, Tanks and other Channels

Wells: Wells and tube wells account about 55.9% of the total irrigation, derives water from underground sources, so it is a widely distributed source of irrigation. The major states where well irrigation is utilised are Punjab, UP, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharastra, MP and TN

Canals: Canals account 31.7% of the total irrigation, it uses surface water from rivers and becoming a principal source of irrigation in India. UP has a good network of canals followed by Punjab, Haryana and Andra Pradesh.

Tanks: Tanks account 5.9% of the total irrigation, mainly found in peninsular India, most of them are small in size and due to high evaporation, it supplies water only for one crop in year. TN, Karnataka, AP and Orissa tops in tank irrigation.

Other sources: The other sources of irrigation include as small dams like ahars and pynes in Bihar, spring channels of TN, water holes in flood plains etc account for 6.4 of the total irrigation.

Command Area Development (CAD):

It is very unfortunate that the irrigational potential created were not fully utilised. Do the government started Command Area Development (CAD) programme. The main objective of it is to reduce the gap between the irrigational potential created and its full utilisation.

Green Revolution

Green revolution played a major role in Indias self-reliance in food production. It is a combined work of fertilizers, irrigation, High yielding varieties and proper plant protection management. This type of modern farm technology was tried in 1960-61 and called Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP). The major achievements of green revolution include the increase in the production of cereals, employment, brought changes in the cropping pattern and brought growth in industry due to the production of fertilisers, pesticidies, farm equipments etc. However the green revolution has its own limitation. It helped affluent farmers due to the investment in the equipments, states with good irrigational facilities and its technology was initially limited to wheat, maize and Bajra.

Fertilizer and Manures

Chemical Fertilizer has an important role in Indian Agriculture as its soil is generally deficient in nitrogen and phosphorous. So to increase agricultural productivity, the addition of Fertilizers and manures is indispensable. The consumption of fertilizers in India per hectare in 1950-51 was only 0.5kg but now it is increased to 90 kgs in 2001-2002

Agricultural Sector has a vital place in the economic development of the country as it provides 26.7 per cent of Gross Domestic Product, provides employment to 65 percent of the total workforce in the country and accounts for 1/6th of the total value of the countys exports. India has achieved self-reliance in the foodgrain production. Per capita availability of food went up to 484.1 gms per day in 1998-99 as compared to 395 gms in early Fifties. The compound growth rate in agricultural production is 2.7 per cent per annum since independence. India has achieved this feat by multipronged strategies and technologies such as Green revolution, Blue revolution, white revolution and of course the latest yellow revolution and is now poised for Rainbow revolution.


Indias agro climatic diversity enables India to grow a large variety of horticultural crops which include fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices and plantation crops. India is the largest producer of vegetables, bananas, mangoes, coconuts and cashew. Horticulture accounts for 25% of the total agricultural exports of India.

Animal Husbandry and dairy development

It is vital sector in the rural economy and it provides self-employment opportunity in the employment generated in the agriculture livestock sector. India has one sixth of the cattle population and more than half of buffalo population in the world. The Operation Flood played major role in bringing the milk production to triple fold since its inception in 1970s and India became the largest producer of milk in 1997. At present India ranks fifth in egg production in the world.


Currently India is the sixth largest producer of fish in the world. Fisheries help in augmenting food supply, generating employment, raising nutritional level and earning foreign exchange. Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDA) provide a package of technical, financial and extension support to fish farmers, for the development in land fisheries. For the development of marine fisheries, apart from six major fishing harbours viz. Cochin, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Roychowk and Paradip, 41 minor fishing harbours and fish landing centres have been constructed to provide lending and berthing facilities to fishing craft.
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), is the main organisation the Ministry of Agriculture.

  • Major kharif crops are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, sugarcane, soyabean and groundnut.
  • Major rabi crops are wheat, barley, gram, linseed, rapeseed and mustard. Rice, maize and groundnut are grown in summer season also.
  • Largest producer of Sugarcane(295.73 mt), fruits(41.5mt), coconut (13 billion nuts),arecanut, cashew nut, ginger, turmeric, black pepper
  • second largest producer of vegetables ( After China)
  • occupies first position in the production of cauliflower, second in onion and third in cabbage in the world.
  • Largest area in the world under pulse crops
  • First to evolve a cotton hybrid (H-4,By Gujarat Agricultural University in 1970)
  • Second in production of rice(88.5 mt)
  • Maximum percentage of the geographical area is arable land.
  • Possesses more than 56% of the buffaloes in the world (8.42 million) and ranks first in respect of cattle & buffalo, 2nd in goats, 3rd in sheep and 7th in poultry population.
  • Largest producer of milk in the world
  • Among various spices grown in the country, chilly is the most widely grown spice with a share in the total production of 33.7 per cent. Turmeric has a share of 21.6 per cent in the total production of spices.
  • India is the third largest producer and consumer of fertilizers in the world after China and USA.
  • India is 100 per cent self sufficient in respect of urea and about 95 per cent in case of DAP.
  • All-India average fertilizer consumption is 89.9 kg./ha though there is wide variation from State to State. from 184 kg/ha in Punjab, 167 kg/ha in Haryana to less than 10 kg/ha in States like Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Sikkim,
  • India ranks fifth in egg production in the world.

Important crops of India and Major Area of production

  Major States in terms of production
23oC,150 cm
West Bengal, TN, Bihar, Orissa, AP, MP, UP,Punjab and Haryana
Leading crop, 23% of cropped area
10-15oC,5- 15cm
UP, Punjab, Haryana ,Bihar, MP, and Rajasthan
2nd leading, 1/10th of cropped area
27-32oC,30-100 cm
Maharastra, Karnataka , MP, AP
Excessive moisture and prolonged draught hamful
35oC , 75 cm
UP, Bihar, Punjab, MP Rajasthan
Provides starch and Glucose for Industrial use
20-30oc, 100
S Karnataka, TN , AP,UP, Orissa, Maharastra
India ranks first in area and production
  Rabi crop
  UP and Rajasthan
  Used in Beer and whisky
Protein source,fixes Nitrogen
Mild cool,31-51
Rajasthan , Great plains in UP, Haryana , MP, Punjab
Cultivated in unirrigated areas in plains
Sugar cane
Tropical 100-150 cm
UP, Maharastra,TN, AP,Karnataka, Haryana
largest producer of sugarcane in the world
20-35oC, 50-80 cm
Gujarat, Maharastra, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka,TN, MP,Rajasthan
Area wise US and India Production wise US, USSR, China, India
Requires large Quantity of water
West Bengal lead the production., Assam
India is 3rd in World Production
Introduced by Portuguese in 1508
AP, Gujarat, Karnataka, TN, UP, Orissa, WB,Rajasthan
China, U.S.A, Brazil, India
Ground Nut
Gujarat, TN, AP, Maharastra, and Karanataka
India has largest area but in prdn. China tops
Below 10oC, 150-250 cm
Assam, West Bengal, TN, Kerala, Karnataka, HP, UP
India, China, Sri Lanka Largest producers
Introduced in India by Bababudan sahib 17th cent.
Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Mostly confined to coastal area
Kerala, TN, Karnataka, AP,Goa, Daman & Diu, AN islands .
In terms of productivity TN tops the list.
Brought by Sir Henry William
Kerala , TN, Karnataka, Andaman Nicobar islands
India holds 5th position in the world
Black Pepper
Almost entire prdn. From kerala, the spice state of India
80% of the prdn. is exported.
10-30oC, 150 รข€“ 600 cm
Kerala, TN, Karnataka, sikkim
2nd largest foreign exchange earner among spices
21oC and Moderate Rainfall
UP, Orissa, TN, Rajasthan, Maharastra, Karnataka
India tops in the world areawise and production wise
Rape seed Mustard
Cool climate
UP, Rajasthan, MP, Haryana, Assam
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