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Geography - World & Indian (Vegitation):

Written By Winston Bensford on Sunday, March 18, 2012 | 3:02 PM

Geography - World & Indian (Vegitation):

Natural vegitation in India is divided into five types and fifteen sub types based on studies made by H.G.Champion, Schweinfurth, Carl Troll and G.S. Puri.

1. Moist Tropical Types a) Tropical wet evergreen b) Tropical Moist semi evergreen c) Tropical Moist deciduous d) Tidal

2. Dry Tropical Types a) Tropical Dry deciduous b) Tropical Dry evergreen c) Tropical Thorn 3 Montane Sub Tropical and Temperate types a)Wet Hill Forest (Southern) b)Wet temperate Forest (Southern) 4 Moutane Types (Himalayan) a) Wet Hill b) Sub Tropical Pine c) Sub Tropical Dry Evergreen d) Moist Temperate e) Dry Temperate 5 Alpine Types a) Alphine

1. Moist Tropical types

Tropical wet and moist semi evergreen forests: These forests occur in areas having more than 250-300cm of rainfall annually and a short dry season. This forests are bounded by semi evergreen forest on the drier margins. These are found on the Sahyadris (upto 1370) , large areas in north eastern India (1070 m) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Some of the important species include rosewood, aini, telsur , champa, toon and gujran ,ironwood, ebony, laurelwood etc.

Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest: These forest occur on areas which receives a rainfall of between 100cm to 200cm. These forest are found in Sahyadris, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, Chhotanagpur plateau and a strip along siwaliks.

Tropical Dry deciduous forests: These are found in those area which receives an annual rainfall of 100- 150 cm. Some of the well known varieties of trees include sal, teak, Shisham, sandalwood, rosewood, hurra, myrobalan, mahua and Khair.

Tidal forest: These are specialised tropical trees which grows in brackish as well as fresh water. Mangrove vegetation is found along seaward fringes, deltas of Ganga, Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna. Mangrove vegetation can with stand salinity. The Great sunderban delta is covered with Sundari tree. Other species such as screw pines, canes and palms are common in deltas and creeks.

2. Dry tropical types

Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest These forests are found along the drier side of moist deciduous forest and when the availability of water further decreases, it degenerates into thron forest.

Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests are found along the coasts of Tamil Nadu which receives about 100 cm of rainfall.

Tropical Thron forest covers an extensive area in the northern , north western parts and leeward side of Sahyadris. The trees common to this types are acacia, neem, shisham, Khair, papal, ber , babool, bamboo and Khardhai.

3. Montane Sub Tropical and Temperate types

Wet Hill Forest (Southern) This type of vegitation is found upto 1500 m ht in Nilgiri and Palni Hills, higher slopes of sahydris , and summits of satpura and Maikal hills.

Wet temperate Forest(Southern) occur above 1500m height on the South Indian Hills of Nilagiri, Annaimalai and Palni and locally known as Sholas. The common trees found here include Mognolia, Laurel, rhododendron, elm , prunus etc.

4. Montane (Himalayan)

The vegitation undergoes changes depending upon the altitude, latitude and slope aspect.

Wet Hill Forest found in Eastern Himalayas between 1000-2000m. evergreen oak,chestnut, ash & Peach are important tress.

Sub tropical pine forest occurs a little west of wet hill forest at similar altitudes between 73oE and 88oE. Chir is most important varieties.

Sub Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest occurs in those areas which receives 50-100 cm of rainfall. Wild olives , Acacia modesta and pistacia are important tree varieties.

Moist Temperate Forest covers an extensive area receiving a rainfall of 100cm รข€“ 250 cm at an altitude between 1500cm and 3000 cm. Important tree varieties include pine, cedar, silver fir, spruce, deodar etc. Dry temperate forest occurs in that region where the rainfall is below 100cm. It is open and xerophytic forest with deodar , Juniper and Chilgozah.
The Forest cover in the country is 675,538 Km2 and constitutes 20.55% of its geographical area. Of this, dense forest constitutes 416,809 Km2(12.68%)and open forest 258,729(7.87%). The declared objective of the government is to achieve a forest cover of 33% of the total area of the country. Madhya Pradesh with 77,265 Km2 of forest cover has the maximum forest cover amongst all states/ UTs, followed by A.P(68,045 sq. km) and Chattishgarh 56,448 sq km)

5. Alphine

Alphine forest are found in the Himalayan Ranges at an Altitude between 3000m and 3500m . The important trees include silver fir, juniper, pine, birch and rhododendron.

Social and Agro forestry:

Social forestry refers to planting of trees in the community lands, roadsides, canal bunks, tank buds, railway tracts, panchayat land etc with the active participation of the local community. The produce is shared with the local community. Agro forestry refers to the practice of growing trees with the agricultural produce in the fields, borders, waste lands etc

Famous wildlife sanctuaries and National Parks of India:

  Sanctuary
  State
  Animals/Birds
Balpakram
Garo hills, Meghalaya
Tigers, Elephants, Bisons
Bandipur
Karnataka-TN border
Tigers, elephants , sambhars,bears, panthers ,deers
Corbet N.P
Nainital, UP
Tigers, elephants, chitals, sabhars,nilgais
Dudwa
Lakshmipur Kheri, UP
Tiger, nilgai, sambhars, panther
Ghana bird
Bharatpur, Rajasthan
Water birds, Siberian cranes, storks, herons
Hazaribagh N.P
Hazaribagh, Bihar
Leopards, tigers,sambhars, chitals
Jaldapara
West Bengal
Indian Rhinoceros
Kanha N.P
M.P
Panther, tiger, sambhars, nilgai, antelope
Mudumalai W.S
Nilgiris,TN
Elephants, deer and pig
Namdapha N.P
Tirap, Arunachal Pradesh
Elephants and tigers
Palamau
Daltenganj, Bihar
Tiger reserve
Parakal
Warangal, A.P
Tigers, Panthers, nilgais and chitals
Periyar
Idduki, Kerala
Elephants, sambhars, gaurs and wild boar
Ranganthitoo
River cauvery, Karnataka
Birds
Shivpuri N.P
Shivpuri, MP
Sunderbans
Sunderbans, WB
Wild bear, crocodile , deer
Vedanthangal
Tamil Nadu
Bird sancuary
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